بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
THE DEATH OF THE SECOND RIGHTEOUS CALIPH THE CHOOSING OF THE THIRD RIGHTEOUS CALIPH
“BAYAH GIVEN BY ALI, TO UTHMAN IBN AFFAN”
The Sunnaha and the details regarding the khulafa of Islaam has been preserved in such a secure way that we are able to go in to detail regarding certain incidents that shaped Islaam after the Messenger saws passed away. One of those incidents is the assassination attempt of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab r.a. We also get a glimpse at how the succeeding caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan r.a, was chosen.
Narrated Amr bin Maymoon:
I saw Umar bin Al-Khattab a few days before he was stabbed in Medina. He was standing with Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman and Uthman bin Hunaif to whom he said, “What have you done? Do you think that you have imposed more taxation on the land (of As-Swad i.e. ‘Iraq) than it can bear?” They replied, “We have imposed on it what it can bear because of its great yield.” Umar again said, “Check whether you have imposed on the land what it can not bear.” They said, “No, (we haven’t).” Umar added, “If Allah should keep me alive I will let the widows of Iraq need no men to support them after me.” But only four days had elapsed before he was stabbed (to death ).
The day he was stabbed, I was standing and there was nobody between me and him (i.e. Umar) except Abdullah bin Abbas. Whenever Umar passed between the two rows, he would say, “Stand in straight lines.” When he saw no defect (in the rows), he would go forward and start the prayer with Takbir.
He would recite Surat Yusuf or An-Nahl or the like in the first raka so that the people may have the time to Join the prayer. As soon as he said Takbir, I heard him saying, “The dog has killed or eaten me,” at the time he (i.e. the murderer) stabbed him. A non-Arab infidel proceeded on carrying a double-edged knife and stabbing all the persons he passed by on the right and left (till) he stabbed thirteen persons out of whom seven died. When one of the Muslims saw that, he threw a cloak on him. Realizing that he had been captured, the non-Arab infidel killed himself, Umar held the hand of Abdur-Rahman bin Auf and let him lead the prayer.
Those who were standing by the side of Umar saw what I saw, but the people who were in the other parts of the Mosque did not see anything, but they lost the voice of Umar and they were saying, “Subhan Allah! Subhan Allah! (i.e. Glorified be Allah).” Abdur-Rahman bin Auf led the people a short prayer.
When they finished the prayer, Umar said, “O Ibn Abbas! Find out who attacked me.” Ibn Abbas kept on looking here and there for a short time and came to say. “The slave of Al Mughira.” On that Umar said, “The craftsman?” Ibn Abbas said, “Yes.” Umar said, “May Allah curse him. I did not treat him unjustly. All the Praises are for Allah Who has not caused me to die at the hand of a man who claims himself to be a Muslim. No doubt, you and your father (Abbas) used to love to have more non-Arab infidels in Medina.” Al-Abbas had the greatest number of slaves. Ibn Abbas said to Umar. “If you wish, we will do.” He meant, “If you wish we will kill them.”
Umar said, “You are mistaken (for you can’t kill them) after they have spoken your language, prayed towards your Qibla, and performed Hajj like yours.”
Then Umar was carried to his house, and we went along with him, and the people were as if they had never suffered a calamity before. Some said, “Do not worry (he will be Alright soon).” Some said, “We are afraid (that he will die).”
Then an infusion of dates was brought to him and he drank it but it came out (of the wound) of his belly. Then milk was brought to him and he drank it, and it also came out of his belly. The people realized that he would die. We went to him, and the people came, praising him. A young man came saying, “O chief of the believers! Receive the glad tidings from Allah to you due to your company with Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and your superiority in Islam which you know. Then you became the ruler (i.e. Caliph) and you ruled with justice and finally you have been martyred.”
Umar said, “I wish that all these privileges will counterbalance (my shortcomings) so that I will neither lose nor gain anything.” When the young man turned back to leave, his clothes seemed to be touching the ground. Umar said, “Call the young man back to me.” (When he came back) Umar said, “O son of my brother! Lift your clothes, for this will keep your clothes clean and save you from the Punishment of your Lord.” Umar further said, “O Abdullah bin `Umar! See how much I am in debt to others.” When the debt was checked, it amounted to approximately eighty-six thousand. Umar said, “If the property of Umar’s family covers the debt, then pay the debt thereof; otherwise request it from Bani Adi bin Kab, and if that too is not sufficient, ask for it from Quraish tribe, and do not ask for it from any one else, and pay this debt on my behalf.”
Umar then said (to Abdullah), “Go to Aisha (the mother of the believers) and say: “Umar is paying his salutation to you. But don’t say: ‘The chief of the believers,’ because today I am not the chief of the believers. And say: “Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission to be buried with his two companions (i.e. the Prophet, and Abu Bakr).”
Abdullah greeted Aisha and asked for the permission for entering, and then entered to her and found her sitting and weeping. He said to her, “Umar bin Al-Khattab is paying his salutations to you, and asks the permission to be buried with his two companions.”
She said, “I had the idea of having this place for myself, but today I prefer Umar to myself.” When he returned it was said (to Umar), “Abdullah bin Umar has come.” Umar said, “Make me sit up.” Somebody supported him against his body and Umar asked (Abdullah), “What news do you have?” He said, “O chief of the believers! It is as you wish. She has given the permission.” Umar said, “Praise be to Allah, there was nothing more important to me than this. So when I die, take me, and greet Aisha and say: “Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission (to be buried with the Prophet (ﷺ) ), and if she gives the permission, bury me there, and if she refuses, then take me to the grave-yard of the Muslims.”
Then Hafsa (the mother of the believers) came with many other women walking with her. When we saw her, we went away. She went in (to Umar) and wept there for sometime. When the men asked for permission to enter, she went into another place, and we heard her weeping inside.
The people said (to Umar), “O chief of the believers! Appoint a successor.” Umar said, “I do not find anyone more suitable for the job than the following persons or group whom Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) had been pleased with before he died.”
Then Umar mentioned: “Ali, Uthman, AzZubair, Talha, Sad and Abdur-Rahman (bin Auf)”
Then Umar said, “Abdullah bin Umar will be a witness to you, but he will have no share in the rule. His being a witness will compensate him for not sharing the right of ruling. If Sad becomes the ruler, it will be alright: otherwise, whoever becomes the ruler should seek his help, as I have not dismissed him because of disability or dishonesty.”
Umar added: “I recommend that my successor takes care of the early emigrants; to know their rights and protect their honor and sacred things. I also recommend that he be kind to the Ansar who had lived in Medina before the emigrants and Belief had entered their hearts before them. I recommend that the (ruler) should accept the good of the righteous among them and excuse their wrong-doers, and I recommend that he should do good to all the people of the towns (Al-Ansar), as they are the protectors of Islam and the source of wealth and the source of annoyance to the enemy. I also recommend that nothing be taken from them except from their surplus with their consent. I also recommend that he do good to the ‘Arab bedouin, as they are the origin of the ‘Arabs and the material of Islam. He should take from what is inferior, amongst their properties and distribute that to the poor amongst them. I also recommend him concerning Allah’s and His Apostle’s protectees (i.e. Dhimmis) to fulfill their contracts and to fight for them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability.”
So when Umar expired, we carried him out and set out walking. Abdullah bin Umar greeted (Aisha) and said, “Umar bin Al-Khattab asks for the permission.” Aisha said, “Bring him in.” He was brought in and buried beside his two companions. When he was buried, the group (recommended by Umar) held a meeting.
Then Abdur-Rahman said, ” Reduce the candidates for rulership to three of you.” Az-Zubair said, “I give up my right to Ali.” Talha said, “I give up my right to Uthman,” Sad, ‘I give up my right to Abdur-Rahman bin Auf.” Abdur-Rahman then said (to Uthman and Ali), “Now which of you is willing to give up his right of candidacy to that he may choose the better of the (remaining) two, bearing in mind that Allah and Islam will be his witnesses.”
So both the sheiks (i.e. Uthman and Ali) kept silent. Abdur-Rahman said, “Will you both leave this matter to me, and I take Allah as my Witness that I will not choose but the better of you?” They said, “Yes.” So Abdur-Rahman took the hand of one of them (i.e. Ali) and said, “You are related to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and one of the earliest Muslims as you know well. So I ask you by Allah to promise that if I select you as a ruler you will do justice, and if I select Uthman as a ruler you will listen to him and obey him.” Then he took the other (i.e. Uthman) aside and said the same to him. When Abdur-Rahman secured (their agreement to) this covenant, he said, “O Uthman! Raise your hand.”
So he (i.e. Abdur-Rahman) gave him (i.e. Uthman) the solemn pledge, and then Ali gave him the pledge of allegiance and then all the (Medina) people gave him the pledge of allegiance.
Thus the story of the death of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab comes to an end. We ask Allah for success in this world and the akhira.
والله تعالى أعلم
وصلى اللهم وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه والتابعين
أخوك أبو ناصر