بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
YEAR 41 AFTER THE HIJRA, THIS IS WHERE THE STORY STARTS, AT THE KHILAFA OF AL-HASSAN.
Hassan faces off with Muawiyyah as He (Hassan) is the caliph. Now very important quick point.
The Khilafa Rashad (Khulafa Al-Rashidoon is 30 years) Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali make up 29.5 Years to the dot. Hassan lasts 6 months before he gives the Khilafa up to Muawiyyah.
“There will be Prophethood for as long as Allah wills it to be, then He will remove it when He wills, then there will be Khilafah on the Prophetic method and it will be for as long as Allah wills, then He will remove it when He wills, then there will be biting Kingship for as long as Allah Wills, then He will remove it when He wills, then there will be oppressive kingship for as long as Allah wills, then he will remove it when He wills, and then there will be Khilafah upon the Prophetic method” and then he remained silent.“ (Ahmed)
a. The hadith indicates that there will be no difference in the rule after the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, in the sense that the Khilafah after him will be based upon his methodology, and follow his example. So there is unity between the Prophetic methodology and the methodology of the successors in applying the rule of Islam, with the only difference being the end of the revelation which was completed before the passing of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.
b. The “biting Kingship” refers to the misapplication of the taking of the pledge of allegiance, which was taken by force and then subsequently handed down by hereditary rule rather than by consent as exemplified to us by the example of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and the first four Khulafaa.
c. The “oppressive Kingship” is the period of time when the Muslims were ruled by those whose rule was based upon Islam but were oppressive upon the people, as indicated by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in other narrations that the Muslims should obey their leader even if he whips their backs as long as he does not order them to commit sin.
d. The last part of the hadith is a glad tiding for the Muslim Ummah, a prophecy that there will again be Khilafah established, with the Will of Allah سبحانه وتعالى, based upon the Prophetic methodology.
It was said to Muawiyyah Hassan has an Army like a Mountain, and the only way to stop that mountain is with another mountain, this is telling us there is sahaba either side. The Armies are huge in number. So Muawiyyah says, then who will take care of the women and children if this battle takes place.
So Banu Abdi Shams (Muawiyyahs tribe) sends two people to speak to Al-Hassan to offer him whatever he wants in return for the Khilafa. He asks who will guarantee this and they say we will.
Al Hassan under some pressure givs up the khilafa for the betterment of the Muslim Ummah. Again the hadith of Al Hassan and Hussein comes to mind, The messenger said These two sons of Mine will be the leader of the youth in paradise, and this one (Al-Hassan) will bring about peace between two Muslim armies. Again Foretelling of things to come.
It was at year 41 that Hassan and Hussein left political life and startedto live lives as highly regarded Muslims in Madeenah. They had moved from Kufa back to Madeenah, as Ali had his Khilafa in Kufa – hence Hassan said to Hussein – They will do to you as they did to your father and me – they will let you down – He warned Hussein about the people of kufa.
Muawiyyah says I will give Hassan a gift nobody ever received, so he gives Hassan 400,000 Dirhams (Approximately 2.5Milion Rials, 600,000 USD in that time, in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Hassan takes the deal.
Imam Ahmad Narrates in Kitab Al-Ilm and the Musnad, there was an Issue between Marwan Ibn Haqqam and Hassan and Hussein, as Mrwan ibn Haqqam was on the side of Aisha, Az-Zubair and Talha at the battle of Jamal. So there was a grudge there and some ill feelings.
The sahaba are not Massoomin, not angels, they are the best of the generations but they are afterall human beings with feelings and relationships where some are stronger than others.
Marwan would curse Ali Ibn Abu Talib on the minbar every Friday, this would happen throughout the khilafa of Muawiyyah, and of course Hassan and Hussein could not take this, so it was mentioned that Muawiyyah had Said Ibn Al’as as his Ameer, and Said would not curse Ali, but Marwan still would when he had the minbar.
Marwan then started to curse Hassan and Hussein also, and he even went as far as to say that they were the cursed ahl al-bayt, and Hassan had to be held back from starting a huge dispute with Marwan Ibn Haqqam.
Al Hassan said, if we are a curse, Allah has cursed you through his prophet while you were still in your fathers loins. These are huge words back and forth.
In The Tabbaqat of Ibn Saad, we get a narration where he Quotes Al-Bakir who was a grandson of Hussein. Al-Bakir says even though Marwan cursed his Father Hussein and his Uncle Hassan they would still pray behind him the Jumuah and congregational prayers. This is how it was.
Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates that Hassan would slip in and do the Jumuah prayer, but would not be there for the khutbah as the cursing was getting to him. So to avoid an evil he would delay entering until the iqamah for the Juamuah prayer was said.
Ibn Ai Shaybah in His Musannaf narrates from Umair, that in the year 49 (8 years have gone by since Hassan has given up the khilafa, and 8 years they have been insulted nad cursed at by Marwan Ibn Haqqam. Al Hassan becomes sick.
A man visits him and asks what happened, so Hassan says I have been vomiting chunks of my liver, I feel I may have been poisoned, so he was sick medically the drs have told me is that this is not possible, rather this may have been a stomach cancer or a tumour). Umair then aked him then who did this to you, Hassan says: What are you going to do, will you kill them, the man answered yes, hassan says if the man is innocent you will take an innocent soul, otherwise Allah will deal with them. So he did not know who poisoned him. Two years later Hassan passes away in Madeenah.
At this time Muawiyyah is pushing to get a pledge of Alegiance to be given to his son Yazid. We again know that 30 years of khilafa will be followed by Kingship, monarchy of a sort (another prophetic foretelling of things to come). This is that Kingship passed from Father to son.
Abu Nuaym in Al-Hilya mentions an interesting narration: Muawiyyah hears a rumour, that Abdullah Ibn Umar, Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakar and Abdullah Ibn Zubayr are fleeing to Makkah to avoid giving bayah to Yazid. He says to Ibn Zubayr you are planning something, you are a sly fox. Ibn Zubayr says to Muawiyyah, if you are boed with the khilafa you give bayah to Yazid and we will follow your son. So Muawiyyah realizes that they were not escaping but rather he was mistaken.
It shows us this was still the time of peace, during the khilafa of Muawiyyah.
In the year 57, Muawiyyah appoints Al Waleed ibn Utbah Ibn Abi Sufyyan as the Amir of Madeenah, so his younger brother.
Now, Al Waleed ibn Utbah was a person who had some issues with Hussein from before, the dispute was a property one, regarding a piece of land in the Marwah. Al Waleed acted unjustly and this made Hussein infuriated by this action, Hussein said by Allah if you do not give me my right I will take my sword, go to the Masjid of RasulAllah saws, and I will call upon Hilf Al-Fudhool.
Now hilf Al Fudhool was a re Islamic agreement where our messenger participated where the Qurashi tribes all came together (Banu Taym, Bani Zuhra, Banu Hashim and Bani Assad) and made an agreement where they would protect the one being oppressed, and get them their right back. So this is what was threatened, and the word made its way to the tribes and they all came to support to Hussein, and Waleed Ibn Utbah had to buckle as he was outnumbered.
This shows us the Hussein was not someone who would backdown, and was someone who was brave and one to stand up for his rights, a man of power, dignity and he was loved and respected by the community. Here we see another interesting tid bit, Banu Taym the tribe of Abu Bakr as sides sticks with Hussein, but we are taught by our shia bretheren that Abu Bakr hated the Ahl Al-Bayt and we are constantly bombarded about the lands he did not give to Fatima.
They were on very good terms, the banu taym and the banu hashim. And of course they intermarried with one another, Ali Married the Wife of Jaffar who was married to Abu Bakr after the death of Jafar and even gave birth to Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr, who Ali raised as his own son, who unfortunatelly would play a role in the Killing of Uthman earlier. But that is another topic altogether.
So Hussain threatened with Hilf Al-Fudhool, and Waleed Ibn Utbah had to give Hussein his rights.
In the year 60 now, Muawiyyah passes away, and when he dies at the end of Rajab, Marwan Ibn Haqqam arrives to the people of Madeenah, the same one that has been cursing Hussein and the one Hussein cursed, the same one that Hassan told you were cursed in your fathers loins.
He sends a message to Waleed Ibn Utbah, Call Abdullah Ibn ZUbair and Hussein to the tent to give bayah to Yazeed or kill them. So Abdullah Ibn Zubair is called and is told Muawiyyah had died and he says rahimahullah. He is told The people of shaam have given bayah to Yazeed and now it is your time, Abdullah Ibn Zubair says no problem, but let us do it pubilacly, I am not someone who does things secretly and this is a public matter.
Marwan does not like that and he says to Waleed Kill him, and this is where the incident of cursing starts, Ibn Zubair curses Marwan and he curses Ibn Zubair, and Ibn Zubair leaves, then Hussein is summoned and he shows up.
Hussein arrives right after their fight and he ofcourse manages to leave not harmed, Marwan says to Waleed Ibn Utbah you will see Ibn Zubair in aplace where you will not like. So spies are sent to find out what Abdullah Ibn Zubair is doing.
Abdullah Ibn Zubair goes home and he prays while his son Hamzah is getting his ride ready, and the apies stay and wait and they finally leave thinking Ibn Zubair is home and not doing anything. Ibn Zubair gets on his mount and heads to Makkah.
In Makkah he meets Hussein and it suprises him, he tells Hussein; What are you doing? If I had the support you have in Kufa, I would not be here in Makkah, all of your supporters are in Kufa!” – Now ofcourse at this time the Shiatul Ali are a political entity, they are not a sect of Islam, there is no Jafari Fiqh, no 12 imams, the Shia that we know today do not exist at this time, and this is very important to understand.
At this time a new Ameer is appointed to Madeenah and at the first Friday Jumuah prayer he says, He (Ibn Zubair) has taken refuge, meaning he ran away like a coward, and if he enters Mkkah we will burn Makkah on top of him”
Here we see that some of the Banu Umayyah are ruthless, and this guy whose name was Umar Bin Saeed Ibn A’as.
But not all of them. Abulmalik Bin Marwaan had issues with what the new Amir had said, so he said, I am one that will stand in the way of this man. All of these narrations are in the Tarikh Khalifa Ibn Hiyyat.
Now this narration tells us that the majority of the sahaba did not tell Hussein not to go, here we see that Ibn Zubair told Hussein that he should seek refuge in Kufa.
As for the narrations that say all of the sahaba warned Hussein, apart from the few I mentioned last week, are attributed to Muhammad Bin Umar Al Waqidi, who was known as the biggest liar in Madeenah.
Next important event is that Hussein leaves Makkah either at the end of Dhul Hijjah, right before Muharram, so he spent 4-5 months in Makkah before he left for Kufa. It was not spontaneous. Was not rushed.
So this is when Abdullah Ibn Abbas says why would you go to the people that Killed your father and betrayed your brother? If the people would not belittle me, I would hold you by your hair and prevent you from going!!! Hussein responds, I know that this Haram, would become Halal due to one man being here, meaning the protected status of Makkah and the Kaaba would become a blood bath, and I do not wish to be that man. This is not Ilm Al Ghayb, rather he would have heard his Grand Father say that hadith to him.
Now, The letters that were sent, in tarikh at-Tabari, at the end of year 60 the letters arrived, and this is a good narration, so Hussein had sent his cousin Muslim Ibn Aqeel to kufa to check the territory and to see if the letters were authentic, like a scout. Ibn Aqeel stays in the House of Haan Ibn Urwah. Han Ibn Urwah is eventually killed by Ubaid Ibn Ziyyad who was the leader of Kufa. and all of this is in the Tarikh At-Tabari. Ubaidullah says to Haan Ibn Urwah I have done so much for you and you have betrayed me, is that how you thank me, and Haan says I thank you by betraying you and he is then killed. We do not know the details.
Now while Muslim Ibn Aqeel is in Kufa, and this is a very famous narration which is authentic, he would be walking the streets with a huge gathering of men, and every time he would turn a corner 10-15-30 people would dissapear from that mass of people, even though they swore allegiance to Hussein just recently and this is what Ibn Aqeel was checking for Al-Hussein.
They end up in Masji Al Ansar, While at the same time Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyyad is looking for them and he suggests to the other guards maybe they are hiding in the Msjid, which again suggests the number has gotten very small. Again the kufans are doing the opposite of what they promised. This is a sunnah of theirs.
So they rip off the roof from the masjid, and they find 50 men in the masjid, and Ibn Ziyyad says split up in to 4’s. And as soon as they split they are attacked and Ibn Aqeel gets attacked and stabbed and he runs away to a house nearby, the house belongs to someone from bani kinda, and with Ibn Ziyyad is a man by the name of Muhammad Bin Ashraf who is told Ibn Aqeel is in this house, two men are sent and Aqeel is told the Amir wants you, he asks for guarantee, and he is not given any guarantee, he surrenders and he gets killed. Ibn Aqeel dies.
Hussein had already left Makkah and he has come in to the perifery of the lands of Kufa, but the roads are colosed and blocked off, so he moves westward because he can not get in to Kufa.
And this is where Karabala happens. An army is sent that surrounds him and at the Helm is Umar Ibn Sa’ad, and Husein is told this is it for you, you are done! This Umar Ibn Sa’ad is the son of Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas, very important detail. The great saads son.
Hussein starts talks with Umar Ibn Sa’ad that he and his family are given safety, Hussein is not alone, of course we know that there are between 70-100 people with him, majority of them family of his, Hilal Bin Yasaf gives us the Authenti narration found in Tarikh aat-Tabari and Ibn Sa’ad.
This is where Hussein says, why dont you all acccompany me to Yazeed I will place my hand on his and the bayah would be given by me, he is now trying to look out for his family, but he is told you will be Judged by Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyyad, who was 26 years old at the time and was the Amir of Kufa as I said before. Now look at the age of the people in charge of this witch hunt. Hussein said No.
One of the people amongst the army of Ibn Sa’ad is a man named Ibn Yazeed (not related to Muawiyyah and Yazeed who is now in power) and he is suprised why they are not letting Hussein go, now, no fighting has taken place yet, there is no rebellion at this moment, Hussein was surrendering andeven offered to be accompanied to Kufa to give Bayah to yazeed.
So Ibn Yazeed says to the army, even if a persian, if a Turk offered what Hussein offers it would be Wajib upon you to do a he requests, but they would not listen to his reasoning.
Abu Hur Ibn Yazeed, gets on his horse heads to Husseins family and then stops, says his salaams and then he rushes to Ibn Saads Army and kills two men before he himself is killed.
This is the first casualty of the Karbala masacre! Blood has been spilt now.
Now important point, remember last weeks Version A and then version b 800 yeaars later. In version A we do get the narration of Hussein asking to give Bayah to Yazeed, 800 years later it is taken out, redacted, because it shows a weakness for lack of a batter term in Hussein.
Also in the A version the early work ob Ibn Mikhanf Lut Ibn Yahya Hussein asks for one of Three things from the army now, 1. You will let me go to Yazeed and do as I said I would. 2. Let me go back to where I came from, (mAKKAH OR mADEENAH) 3. Let me and my family go to an outer land of the Muslims, so that I am not in your way.
We have a narration in Tarikh At Tabari by Saad Ibn Ubaidah, who was part of Umar Ibn Sa’ads army, He says there were some old Kufan men close by and they were making dua to Allah, to help Hussein, and they were told why don’t you help him? You got him here and left him in the lurch. Then while Hussein was negotiating with the army, a man from the army took an arrow placed it in his bow and then he shot Hussein in the back. Hussein was said to have walked back to his camp.
At this time Juwariyyah Bin Badr At Tamimi, was sent to Umar Ibn Sa’ad and said to him, you are to Kill Hussein that is the order from Ubaydillah Ibn Ziyyad, and if not I will kill you and be your replacement.
Umar Ibn Sa’ad gets on his horse and says lets go, and this is where the massacre occurs, they kill most f the men in the camp.
Now we do have a narration that is deemed authentic, by the tyrant Al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf At-THhaqafi who was in charge of much of Iraq many years later. Al Hajjaj was approached by Sinan Ibn Anas An Nakhai, and he asked Sinan were you the man that killed Hussein with the final blow, and Sinan says, yes it was me.
Hajjaj THE TYRANT asked him how did you kill him, An Nakhai says, I rammed him with my spear and then I cut him with my sword to bits, and Hajjaj the tyrant said, you will never enter the place that Hussein will in the akhira. Look at the irony here, Allhu Akbar.
So according to Ahl Al-Sunnah the killer is Sinan Ibn Anas An-Nakhai, but according to Abu Mikhnaf Lut Ibn Yahyas work it was Shimr Bin Dhee Jawshan, Shimr was part of the army but he was not the killer. This is somethuing you wil not hear in other places.
After the death, the head of Hussain was cut off and was presented to Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyyad, and Ibn Ziyyad used to poke at the head with a stick. And he would say oh Hussein you have become an old man, and who was there to see this, Anas Ibn Malik, the great sahabi, who said, He was the most closest looking to rasulAllah saws, and you make fun of him Allah will dal with you.
Tabarani has a narration by Abdul Melik Bin Umair said, I walked in to the court of Ibn Ziyyad and I saw the head of Hussein, and I walked in to the court of Mukhtar Ath-Thaqafi and I saw the head of Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyyad, and I walked in to the court of Musab Ibn ZUbair and I saw the head of Ath-Thaqafi, and then I walked in to the court of Abulmelik Bin Marwan and I saw the head of Muab Ibn ZUbair and the killing just continued.
SubhanAllah, this is the sunnah of Allah, we know when a prophet is killed or a son of a prophet is killed calamity after calamity will befall the people that had part in it, and the killing conitnued amongst these tyrants.
Now a very important topic, did Yazeed Ibn Muawiyyah have any direct involvement in Killing Hussein, he was the Khalifa afterall, the answer is we will never know for sure, there are no authentic narrations in regards to Yazeed.
However, what we can intelectually deduce is that Yazeed never reprimanded Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyyad, he did not take his position away from him, or punish him. Does this implicate him, perhaps it does, he may have thought that the killing was strategic for the kingdom.
May Allah allow us to recognize the truth so that we can stick to it, and may Allah allow us to recognize the falsehood so that we can abstain from it.
Anything wrong in this paper is my own fault, and should be rejected. As for that correct statements, we need to accept them and adjust accordingly, in sha Allah.
والله تعالى أعلم
وصلى اللهم وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه والتابعين
أخوك أبو ناص